A form of time that exists only within music. Musical time always coexists with absolute time (“clock time”), and a number of philosophers, including Kramer, Langer, and de Selincourt, consider musical time to be multi-dimensional (Kramer 1988: 3). Kramer describes several types of musical time (Kramer 1988: 6-7):
Multiply-directed time: Time that can move in many directions, depending on the current musical context.
Gestural time: A variant of multiply-directed time that is created by certain figures in the music and does not have to correspond with absolute time. For example, a musical figure that is conventionally used at the end of a piece can be placed near the beginning.
Vertical time: A form of musical time that is perceived as static, even while absolute time continues to move.
Moment time: Discontinuous musical time; series of events is experienced as a “mosaic”.