Announcements & Articles of Interest

Today in class, we discussed work-in-progress and literature reviews. Here are two articles that came up that might be of interest to some of you:

Phillips-Silver, J., (2009), “On the meaning of movement in music, development and the brain”

Trainor, L., (2007), “Do preferred beat rate and entrainment to the beat have a common origin in movement?”

It also came to my attention that some of you have midterm exams scheduled for next week and/or might benefit from extra time for completing the literature review for the individual projects. In response to this, I would like to officially extend the deadline for the literature review to Monday, October 27. Additional details are posted on the Individual Projects page.

Finally, while we dispensed with the official survey of the topic of “developmental and cross cultural issues”, I thought I should still post the articles I was planning to discuss here, some of which have already been mentionned in class( e.g., Hannon & colleagues’s 2012 study comparing Turkish and American listeners). At the very least, you will benefit from reading the abstracts and might find that one of these sources is a special relevance to something you are working on:

– Winkler, Gabor, Haden, Ladinig, Sziller, & Honing (2009), “Newborn infants detect the beat in music

– Zentner & Eerola (2010), “Rhythmic engagement with music in infancy

Trehub (2012), “Behavioral methods in infancy: Pitfalls of single measures”

Hannon & Trehub, (2005), “Tuning in to musical rhythms: Infants learn more readily than adults”

– Hannon, Soley & Ullal, (2012), “Familiarity overrides complexity in rhythm perception: A cross-cultural comparison of American and Turkish listeners”

Rammsayer & Altenmuller (2006), “Temporal information processing in musicians and nonmusicians”

 

Statistics Workshop – POSTPONED

The statistics workshop with Sherlock Campbell HAS BEEN POSTPONED. It is now scheduled for Tuesday, October 28, 11:35am-12:50pm (location TBA).

We will meet in our regular classroom and us the time to discuss methods and work-in-progress on group & individual projects.

Also, a reminder that the introductory workshop on Qualtrics is this Friday, October 17, 1:30pm-3:30pm. If you can go and have not registered yet, click here.

Assignment for Tuesday & Thursday, October 14 & 16 – UPDATED

Follow-up to research question selection for group project:

1. Research question: Make sure to email me to let me know where you are in the process of selecting your final question. If you are still unsure about which of the two questions you would like to work on, email me a brief summary of your ideas for each question, including:

– Actual question (you might have needed to re-formulate or clarify the original)

– Possible theory, conjecture, and hypotheses

– Ideas about how to operationalize at least one hypothesis

If your group discussion led you to pick one question over the other, send me a brief summary (as above) for that question only. Ideally, I would like to get this information at the latest by Monday, October 12, 12:00 PM.

2. Background research: The next step toward designing an experiment that explores your question is to do some background research to gather information on the state of research and identify potential models/paradigms. Each group should identify at least 3-4 articles that are directly relevant to their specific research question (1-2 articles per student). Refer to the Group Project main page for details. The first part of this step should be completed at the latest by Thursday, October 16, 11:30 AM.

In preparation for this week’s workshops:

1. For Tuesday: Read the handouts on measurement scales and methodological problems, and complete the corresponding Group Tasks. We will review these in class together.

2. For Thursday: Read the remaining handouts (mostly on statistics).

Follow-up to preliminary bibliography for individual projects:

1. For Tuesday: Add each source in your bibliography to the Virtual Lab’s “Bibliography” (under “Library”). If the source is relevant to one of the topical area already listed, you may add it to that sub-wiki. If it is not, you may create a new topical sub-wiki. Follow the same format (citation and abstract). Finally, link each source in your bibliography to the one you posted in the main bibliography. (This assignment will count toward the “quizzes” portion of the final grade.)

UPDATE: I have created sub-wikis with your name in the main Bibliography. Click on the sib-wiki and “Edit” to change the title to your topical area. Then, you may following these steps to create citations within your sub-wiki (these steps are also reproduced on your sub-wiki):

Steps for adding citations, abstracts, and full-text (if available):

1. Click on “Create New”.

2. Enter the full citation in the title box, and copy and paste the abstracts in the main box.

3. Click “Add Media” and upload the electronic full-text of the article (if available), then click “Insert”; format the title of the document as needed.

4. Before saving your new post, make sure the select your category (below).

5. Save your new post.

Steps to add a link to your Bibliography citation in your individual project bibliography and literature review:

1. Click on the citation in the main Bibliography.

2. Copy the link.

3. Open the post in which you want to link the citation by clicking the “Edit” button.

4. Highlight the bibliographic citation and click on the link symbol above.

5. Paste the URL in the box.

6. Save.

2. For Thursday: Continue reading your sources in preparation for the literature review (due Tuesday, October 21). In addition to taking notes, you should start planning the contents (e.g., outline). In particular, you want to be thinking about how the various sources are organized categorically. A good literature review will identify themes or perspectives and discuss the previous research along these lines.

 

 

 

 

Assignments for Tuesday & Thursday, October 7 & 9 – UPDATED!

FOR TUESDAY:

1. Individual project: Preliminary annotated bibliography. Requirements details as well as suggested steps are posted on the Individual Projects page.

2. Reading: Below you will find one required reading (Janata & al., 2012), and two reference articles (review abstracts only).

Janata, Tomic, & Haberman (2012), “Sensorimotor coupling in music and the psychology of the groove”

How do the findings compare to your intuitive understanding of “groove”? What are some limitations of these experiments? What might be some follow-up experiments? Keep in mind my Notes on Critical Reading and Huron’s tips on assessing tests of hypotheses in Reading Empirical Research.

Phillips-Silver & Trainor (2008), “Vestibular influence on auditory metrical interpretation”

Chapin, Jantzen, Kelso, Steinber, & Large (2010), “Dynamic emotional and neural responses to music depend on performance expression and listener experience”

FOR WEDNESDAY & THURSDAY:

Group project: Research questions. Requirements details are posted on the Group Projects page.

UPDATE: If there is a possibility that you will be able to attend the CSSI workshop on Qualtrics (survey tool we will use for the group projects), register for it now. The workshop is scheduled for Friday, October 17, 1:30-3:30pm. If you end up not being able to attend, you can always cancel your registration

Assignment due Thursday, October 2

REMINDER: The Forum response on the microtiming case study (swing ratio) is due Thursday! See Forum posting for details.

On Thursday, we will begin with the student group presentations of the two focus articles assigned last week (Repp, 1999; Ashley, 2002). Please arrive at 11:30am to plan the presentation with your team.

The last segment of the class meeting (about 50 minutes) will be devoted to a research workshop with Rémi Castonguay, Public Services Project Librarian (remi.castonguay@yale.edu) at the Yale Gilmore Music Library. The goal of the workshop is to gain more hands-on experience with database searching and do some troubleshooting on findings relevant sources for your individual projects. In preparation for the workshop:

– Search for sources in RILM, PsycARTICLES, and Google Scholar. Take note of the keywords your used and save the relevant citations your find in a folder. If you get stuck, you might want to send an email to Rémi in advance of the workshop (include the database and keywords information in your email).

We will try to divide the workshop time evenly between the 5 research topics.

HEADS UP!

For next week, you will be focusing your efforts in a three-way split:

1. Reading: Our brief survey of “groove” will focus on the 2012 study by Janata & colleagues. I will post the article here on Thursday.

2. Group project: You will be required to come up with 2-3 questions that have the potential to be addressed experimentally within the constraints of the course. These questions can be derived from any of the materials we covered so far or from your individual project research question. I will post more specific instructions on the Group Projects page on Thursday.

3. Individual project: The next step for your individual project is a preliminary annotated bibliography of about 10-12 sources directly relevant to your topic and research question. The work you will do in preparation for Thursday’s workshop will be a first step toward building your bibliography. I will post more detailed requirements and tips on the Individual Projects page on Thursday as well.

Remember that the early work we are doing on these projects mean that we will be in a position to reduce the end-of-semester time crunch!

Assignment due Tuesday, September 30

Here’s the plan for Tuesday:

1. Finish up our methods tutorial, starting with a debriefing of Group Task #3 (Generating Theories) and moving on to hypotheses operationalization.

2. Brief introduction to microtiming and its relationship to categorical perception.

3. Student summaries of required readings, i.e., Repp (1999) & Ashley (2002); the details for the last assignment are reproduced below. You will be given about 5-7 minutes to plan the summary presentation, each of which should be about 5-7 minutes, followed by a short discussion. Use the Notes on Critical Reading (especially the third group of bullet points) to guide your review of your article. Also, a good strategy for a summary presentation is to pick a figure or example to look at closely after the basic points have been established.

NOTE: The Forum posting assignment based on the group of articles pertaining to the “swing” ratio that has been postponed to Thursday, October 2. On Thursday, we will devote most of the class time to a research workshop with Rémi Castonguay, Public Services Project Librarian, and might re-visit the question of the swing ratio “live” if we have time left.

GROUP 1: Required readings (due 9/30)

To start, a methodological summary of the topical area:

Camp, Kilchenmann, Volken, & Senn (2011), “On measuring and interpreting microtiming”

Focus on the concepts introduced; the experiment is also interesting and bears on the more “musical” research on microtiming, but it is also more technical, and I would rather you spent more time with the following two studies. You should take the time to browse through both articles and read the abstracts, but I have assigned specific students to each article for focused reading (and preparatory listening):

Repp (1999): Ryan & Angie

Ashley (2002): Jordan, Genevieve, & Kyle

Make sure you can give a brief summary of the study you focused on.

Repp (1999), “Individual differences in the expressive shaping of a musical phrase. (I.) The opening of Chopin’s Etude in E major”

This is one of many articles published by Repp following his painstaking analysis of 115 expert performances of this famous Etude by Chopin. Before reading the article, make sure to listen to at least 2 or 3 performances of the work. In your reading, focus on the materials that pertain to timing patterns rather than dynamic patterns. After reading the article, visit the following website, where you will find materials created for a follow-up study that will illustrate aurally some of the findings described in the article:

http://www.haskins.yale.edu/misc/REPP/AP.html

Ashley (2002), “Do[n’t] change a hair for me: The art of jazz rubato”

Focus your reading on the summary of previous research provided by Ashley and on his findings related to “My Funny Valentine”. Again, first listen to the recordings used as materials for this study; they are by Chet Baker (1954), the Miles Davis Quartet (1956), and Art Farmer and the Gerry Mulligan Quartet (1958). Then, read the relevant sections. (You may also browse quickly through the other sections of the article.)

GROUP 2: Reference materials – read abstracts only (due 9/30)

An early study on microtiming in pianists’ performance of Satie’s Gnossienne No. 5:

Clarke (1985), Some aspects of rhythm and expression in performances of Erik Satie’s ‘Gnossienne No.5′”

A series of experiments on listeners’ ability to perceive timing variations:

Clarke (1989), “Perception of expressive timing”

Assignment due Thursday, September 25

On Thursday, 9/25, we devote the first half of the class meeting to the methods tutorial. The next segment will focus on a discussion/review of the readings on this week’s topic: “Categorical perception & microtiming.” Again, there are two groups of readings, and only the first group is due on Thursday:

GROUP 1: Required readings (due 9/25)

To start, a methodological summary of the topical area:

Camp, Kilchenmann, Volken, & Senn (2011), “On measuring and interpreting microtiming”

Focus on the concepts introduced; the experiment is also interesting and bears on the more “musical” research on microtiming, but it is also more technical, and I would rather you spent more time with the following two studies. You should take the time to browse through both articles and read the abstracts, but I have assigned specific students to each article for focused reading (and preparatory listening):

Repp (1999): Ryan & Angie

Ashley (2002): Jordan, Genevieve, & Kyle

Make sure you can give a brief summary of the study you focused on.

Repp (1999), “Individual differences in the expressive shaping of a musical phrase. (I.) The opening of Chopin’s Etude in E major”

This is one of many articles published by Repp following his painstaking analysis of 115 expert performances of this famous Etude by Chopin. Before reading the article, make sure to listen to at least 2 or 3 performances of the work. After reading the article, visit the following website, where you will find materials created for a follow-up study that will illustrate aurally some of the findings described in the article:

http://www.haskins.yale.edu/misc/REPP/AP.html

Ashley (2002), “Do[n’t] change a hair for me: The art of jazz rubato”

Focus your reading on the summary of previous research provided by Ashley and on his findings related to “My Funny Valentine”. Again, first listen to the recordings used as materials for this study; they are by Chet Baker (1954), the Miles Davis Quartet (1956), and Art Farmer and the Gerry Mulligan Quartet (1958). Then, read the relevant sections. (You may also browse quickly through the other sections of the article.)

 

GROUP 2: Reference materials – read abstracts only (Forum response due 9/30)

An early study on microtiming in pianists’ performance of Satie’s Gnossienne No. 5:

Clarke (1985), Some aspects of rhythm and expression in performances of Erik Satie’s ‘Gnossienne No.5′”

A series of experiments on listeners’ ability to perceive timing variations:

Clarke (1989), “Perception of expressive timing”

One fairly active area of research on microtiming has been focused on the phenomenon of the jazz “swing”. Here is a small collection of articles on this topic. What are the main research questions tackled by these studies? What are some of the common findings? Are there conflicting experimental results? What might explain these differences? You will need to write a response to these prompts on the Forum page by Tuesday, September 30, 9:00 AM.

Collier & Collier (2002), “A study of timing in two Louis Armstrong solos”

Friberg & Sundstrom (2002), “Swing ratios and ensemble timing in jazz performance: Evidence for a common rhythmic pattern”

Benadon (2006), “Slicing the beat: Jazz eighth-notes as expressive microrhythm”

Honing & de Haas (2008), “Swing once more: Relating timing and tempo in expert jazz drumming”

Butterfield (2011), “Why do jazz musicians swing their eighth notes”

NOTE: As I did over the weekend, I will continue conducting individual project business over email, until you are ready to post a draft of your research statement (i.e., proposal) on your individual page on the Virtual Lab.

Assignment due Tuesday, September 23

As discussed in class today, you should be working on selecting a research question (or set of questions) for your individual project. For detailed instructions, go to the “Individual Projects” tab in the “Projects” page on this site. You should email me potential topic ideas as soon as possible; ideally, topics should be approved by the end of next week at the latest.

On Tuesday, 9/23, we will dive into the Carter case study right where we left off today. The second part of the class will be devoted to a methods tutorials. In preparation for the tutorial, please do the following:

1. If you have not read the two handouts The Experimental Study and Reading Empirical Research, please take the time to do so, and pay special attention to technical terms (e.g., independent vs. dependent variables) and to the section on assessing tests of hypotheses.

2. Read Types of Empirical Studies. What are the essential differences between these different types of studies? There will be a short quiz on this material, so make sure to read it carefully!

Assignment Due Tuesday & Thursday, September 16 & 18

Remember that you have a task due on Monday, September 15, 9:00 AM (research questions posting on Forum); review the details on the previous assignment posting.

1. Discussion preparation: For Tuesday, review Margulis (2012) using the “Notes on Critical Reading” document as guide. Then, listen to Rameau’s “Le tambourin (distributed in class) and review Margulis’s discussion of the specific findings in this piece closely (pp. 382-383). What aspect of the construction is Margulis interested in here? What are some of the limitations in the experimental design that might bear on interpreting the results?

1. Listening & score study: Listen to Elliott Carter’s 90+ for Piano (1994), as performed by Pierre-Laurent Aimard:

90+ for Piano

Listen to the piece again, this time tapping along with the “underlying pulse” (or beat).

Is the piece unified by a single beat or does it have several different beats? Are there sections where there is no beat at all? Locate these beats (one or two is enough for this exercise) in the recordings with the chronometric time and use the online metronome to identify its speed (in beats per minute or bpm). What is the interonset interval (IOI) corresponding to each of your perceived beats (in milliseconds or ms)?

You may listen to the piece again, this time with the score (but not before you have completed the above task!). Can you follow along? What are some of the musical parameters that might have contributed to your hearing of these beats?

Post a short response (1-2 paragraphs) to these questions on the Forum by Thursday, September 18, 9:00 AM (these instructions are reproduced on the Forum page).

2. Readings: This week’s readings are divided into two groups. The first group are required readings; read the abstract first and then move fairly quickly through the materials, keeping in mind the guiding questions from the “Notes on critical reading” document (see above). The second group are reference materials; you are expected to read only the abstracts, although you might need to refer to these materials later in the course of designing your group experiment or doing background research for your individual project. We will discuss the assigned readings on Thursday, but you should try to get a head start on these as soon as possible.

GROUP 1: Required (read in the order listed); you’ll note that there is a fair amount of repetition in these three short articles. Focus on how the three accounts differ from one another in terms of aims, contextualization, and/or methods. The repetition is a “boon” for easier assimilation of this important theory (quiz alert!).

– Large (1994), “Models of metrical structure in music

NOTE: If the math in this article is beyond your experience (most of it is beyond mine), don’t despair. It is not essential to understanding the main ideas in this article.

– Jones, Moynihan, MacKenzie, & Puente (2002), “Temporal aspects of stimulus-driven attending in dynamic arrays

– Jones (2008), “Musical time

GROUP 2: Reference (read abstract)

– Large & Jones (1999), “The dynamics of attending: How people track time-varying events” (experimental report)

– Penel & Bigand (2000), “Tapping in time with mechanically and expressively performed music” (experimental report)

– Snyder & Krumhansl (2001), “Tapping to Ragtime: Cues to Pulse Finding” (experimental report)

– Toiviainen & Snyder (2003), “Tapping to Bach: Resonance-based modeling of pulse” (experimental report)

– Repp (2005), “Sensorimotor synchronization: A review of the tapping literature

– Repp & Su (2013), “Sensorimotor synchronization: A review of recent research (2006-2012)

Schedule Adjustment & Updated Assignment for Thursday, September 11

To give some extra time to the newcomers to catch up with the group, I have decided to make a few adjustments to the schedule. Thank you for your patience while we get back on track!

1. The Research Workshop I on database searching and online research has been re-scheduled for next Tuesday, September 16. Consequently, the research questions based on Tan&al. (2010), “Perception of musical time” should now be posted on the Forum by Monday, September 15, 9:00AM. Of course, you should feel free to post them anytime before then!

2. The discussion on this week’s readings will be next class, Thursday, September 11. Refer to the previous assignment posting for details & materials. In particular, take a closer look at the figures in both Addessi & Caterina (2005) and Margulis (2012), as well as the discussion of the specific results for the Rameau (Margulis, 2012: 382-383). You can listen to a recording of the piece with the score here (I will distribute copies of the score in class).

3. The deadline for the individual projects research question marked as 9/15 on the syllabus is being postponed (TBA).

4. Because of the change in the constituency of the class, we will have a segment of class devoted to reading experimental reports (Methods I) either at the end of class this Thursday or after the research workshop next Tuesday. This will most likely have the consequence to push back the group project (and the associated “methods” tutorials) by one week or so. I will distribute an updated schedule of topics next week.

So, what should you prepare for next class?

– Students who have been attending classes during shopping period can use the extra time to review the readings and/or explore potential research questions for their individual project.

– New students should make sure to complete all the readings due for next class, fill-out the Student Questionnaire and drop it in my mailbox (Stoeckel Hall, 1st floor), and if time permits, read the previously assigned Drake & Bertrand (2003). I have also left hard copies of previously distributed materials on the cork board next to my office door (Stoeckel Hall, room 301) for you to pick up at your leisure.